Merrill’s Principles of Instruction

Merrill’s Principles of Instruction

Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction is a set of problem-based teaching strategies that have been shown to be extremely effective. The principles draw from the five foundational principles of instruction, and consist of five strategies to inform best practices when instructing learners. When these strategies are implemented by teachers, student learning, motivation and engagement improve….

Theory X and Theory Y, Douglas McGregor

Theory X and Theory Y, Douglas McGregor

Douglas McGregor spent the end of the 1950’s and the early 1960’s working on his motivation theory. Curiously titled Theory X Theory Y, his theory outlines two opposing views on human behavior in the workplace. Each of the viewpoints addresses a different way of meeting each individual’s motivational needs. McGregor believed that a manager’s assumptions…

McClelland’s Three Needs Theory: Power, Achievement, and Affiliation

McClelland’s Three Needs Theory: Power, Achievement, and Affiliation

The Three Needs Theory, also known as need theory, is the best-known theory of David McClelland, a Harvard professor who spent thirty years conducting research on motivation. He sought to understand human nature and develop tools to measure how people make choices. McClelland’s Theory of Three Needs outlines the three desires that an individual could…

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Two-factor

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Two-factor

Businesses and organizations have long sought for answers on how to boost employee production, and therefore, profits. Fortunately, many researchers have extensively studied human motivation to try and understand what drives humans to work. Herzberg’s two-factor theory outlines that humans are motivated by two things: motivators and hygiene factors (see Figure 1). These two factors…

Model of Motivation: ARCS Instructional Design

Model of Motivation: ARCS Instructional Design

ARCS is an instructional design model and focuses on motivation. This model was developed by John M. Keller. With the rise of online learning, there has been renewed interest in John Keller’s Instructional Model of Motivation. It is much more challenging to motivate students online than it is in class. Keller’s model offers ways to…

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction

Robert Mills Gagné (August 21, 1916 – April 28, 2002) was an educational psychologist who created a nine-step process called the events of instruction. One of the leading pioneers to a systematic approach in teaching is none other than Robert Gagné. Gagné developed his model after observing the thought processes of adults when they were…

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in Education

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in Education

Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to Education Students in classrooms or training courses may be distracted. They have other considerations running through their minds, such as their other classes, personal lives, friendships, hobbies, physical distractions like hunger or tiredness, and so much more. When students are sidetracked by these or any other issues, their own…

Science Education Journals

Science Education Journals

This is a list of science education journals. This article lists general science education journals. Journals in the fields of science education: General Asia-Pacific Science Education Open Access Cultural Studies of Science Education Electronic Journal of Science Education Open Access International Journal of Environmental and Science Education International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education Science Citation Index Journal of Computers in…